post-title Contribution Margin Ratio CM Ratio Definition, Formula, Example 2021-07-16 05:09:05 yes no Categories: Bookkeeping

# Contribution Margin Ratio CM Ratio Definition, Formula, Example

The contribution margin can be computed for a product line, the business, and a product unit. The contribution margin ratio is the revenue percentage which remains for profit, fixed costs, and fixed expenses. Businesses that offer labor-intensive services are often the ones with a low contribution margin. A high contribution margin is oftentimes the case in businesses that are more capital-intensive in comparison. This is because they require massive facilities, machinery, and equipment. The contribution margin ratio is the percentage of sales revenues, service revenues, or selling price remaining after subtracting all of the variable costs and variable expenses.

• This means that \$15 is the remaining profit that you can use to cover the fixed cost of manufacturing umbrellas.
• The contribution margin ratio, often abbreviated as “CM ratio”, expresses the residual profits generated from each unit of product sold, once all variable costs are subtracted from product revenue.
• A business can increase its Contribution Margin Ratio by reducing the cost of goods sold, increasing the selling price of products, or finding ways to reduce fixed costs.
• Direct materials are often typical variable costs, because you normally use more direct materials when you produce more items.
• This leftover revenue “contributes” to fixed cost expenses and profits.
• For those organizations that are still labor-intensive, the labor costs tend to be variable costs, since at higher levels of activity there will be a demand for more labor usage.

Accordingly, the contribution margin per unit formula is calculated by deducting the per unit variable cost of your product from its per unit selling price. In our example, the sales revenue from one shirt is \$15 and the variable cost of one shirt is \$10, so the individual contribution margin is \$5. This \$5 contribution margin is assumed to first cover fixed costs first and then realized as profit. Variable costs are not typically reported on general purpose financial statements as a separate category. Thus, you will need to scan the income statement for variable costs and tally the list.

## What is the Contribution Margin Used For?

As a reminder, fixed costs are business costs that remain the same, no matter how many of your product or services you produce — for example, rent and administrative salaries. Variable costs are those expenses that vary with the quantity of product you produce, such as direct materials or sales commissions. Some people assume variable costs are the same as COGS, but they’re not. (When you subtract COGS from revenue you get gross profit, which, of course, isn’t the same as contribution margin.) In fact, COGS includes both variable and fixed costs. Knight points to a client of his that manufactures automation equipment to make airbag machines.

For variable costs, the company pays \$4 to manufacture each unit and \$2 labor per unit. It also results in a contribution margin ratio of \$14/\$20, or 70 percent. The CVP relationships of many organizations have become more complex recently because many labor-intensive jobs have been replaced by or supplemented with technology, changing both fixed and variable costs. For those organizations that are still labor-intensive, the labor costs tend to be variable costs, since at higher levels of activity there will be a demand for more labor usage.

## Sample Calculation of Contribution Margin

As mentioned above, the contribution margin is nothing but the sales revenue minus total variable costs. Thus, the following structure of the contribution margin income statement will help you to understand the contribution margin formula. Contribution margin analysis also helps companies measure their operating leverage. Companies that sell products or services that generate higher profit with lower fixed and variable costs have very good operating leverage. Variable costs fluctuate with the level of units produced and include expenses such as raw materials, packaging, and the labor used to produce each unit.

For example, if the price of your product is \$20 and the unit variable cost is \$4, then the unit contribution margin is \$16. Furthermore, this ratio is also useful in determining the pricing of your products and the impact on profits due to change in sales. Accordingly, in the Dobson Books Company example, the contribution margin ratio was as follows. Sales revenue refers to the total income your business generates as a result of selling goods or services. Furthermore, sales revenue can be categorized into gross and net sales revenue.